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(1) IMAGES Project Publications 2011

 

The online edition of our IMAGES project 2011 publication is available at http://cinej.pitt.edu 

 

as

  

The CINEJ Cinema Journal Online Special Issue 1 (2011). IMAGES – Films as Spaces of Cultural Encounter. The IMAGES Project 2011 Publication.

Edited by Veronika Bernard and Serhan Oksay; co-edited by Vedat Akman and Murat Akser

 

 

Table of Contents

Editor’s Note

 

Editors’ Note

 

Veronika BERNARD and Serhan OKSAY: The IMAGES Project and the IMAGES Project 2011 Publication IMAGES – Films as Spaces of Cultural Encounters

 

Articles on Cinematic Language and Aesthetics of Conveying Cultural Encounters: Imagery and Music

 

Veronika BERNARD: The Language of Colours. A Semiotic Analysis of Colours and Symbolic Imagery in Francis Ford Coppola’s Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1992)

 

David RYAN: Sedimentations: Some Thoughts on Schoenberg’s Musical Accompani­ment to a Cinematographic Scene

 

Paul HARTLEY: The ‘Return to Home’: The Musical Construction of a Common Trope in New Turkish Cinema

Thematical Articles

 

Frank F. SCHERER: Ufa Orientalism. The ‘Orient’ in Early German Film: Lubitsch and May

 

Agnieszka Ayşen KAIM: New Turkish Cinema – Some Remarks on the Homesickness of the Turkish Soul

 

Qijun (Cynthia) HAN: Across Cultural and National Borders: Diasporic Chinese Family in Pushing Hands

 

Akshaya KUMAR: Changing Landscape of Moral Registers and Urban Pathology in ‘Bombay’ Cinema: Decline of Biological Family and Birth of the Individual through Awara (1951), Deewar (1975) and Satya (1998)

 

Sandra BERCHTEL: Identity, Cultural Representation and Feminism in the Movie Head-On (Fatih Akin)

 

Petruta TATULESCU: Gender and Identity at Boarding Schools: Outcast Teachers in Maedchen in Uniform (1958) vs. Loving Annabelle (2006)

 

Judith MICHELMANN: Re-Organizing Cultural Values: Vers le Sud by Laurent Cantet

 

Derya DEĞER: The Relation between Hollywood and the New Threat Perception of the USA after the End of Cold War from the Perspective of Postmodernism

 

Vlad DIMA: Strangers No More: The Initial Hitchcock Murder  

 

Melissa R. MEADE: Violence, Oppression, and Double Standards in Three Colombian Films

 

Film Projects of Intercultural Effort

Vedat AKMAN: Istanbul Crossroads Establishing Mutual Understanding and Inter-Cultural Dialog through Images

Rear Matter

The Special Issue Editors

 

 

 

Abstracts (online edition)

 

Veronika BERNARD: The Language of Colours. A Semiotic Analysis of Colours and Symbolic Imagery in Francis Ford Coppola’s Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1992)

 

Reviews referring to Francis Ford Coppola’s Columbia Pictures Bram Stoker’s Dracula classic of 1992 recurrently mention the images owing to the camera work of Michael Ballhaus as the striking feature of the movie and highly praise them for their thematically coherent effect.. The colours, if mentioned at all, leave reviewers undecided to sceptical when it comes to evaluating their contribution to the overall composition of the film, though. By providing a semiotic analysis of colours and symbolic imagery the below article will show how colours and imagery in their inter-relatedness create coherence and cohesion with Coppola’s interpretation of Stoker’s Dracula as a religiously inspired morality play set in the context of Victorian cultural values and self-perception.

 

David RYAN: Sedimentations:  Some Thoughts on Schoenberg’s Musical Accompaniment to a Cinematographic Scene

 

This article examines Arnold Schoenberg’s Begleitmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene of 1930. This, essentially, is a soundtrack in search of a film (no film was actually created with it in mind), and clearly speaks of Schoenberg’s bleak premonitions of the coming decade with its cue titles of ‘threatening fear’ – ‘danger’ – and ‘catastrophe’. The article further explores Schoenberg’s music in relation to the musical/ cinematic practices of his day. This leads to a discussion of Jean-Marie Straub and Danielle Huillet’s utilization of the score from 1973 which uses film as a self-reflexive device to explore the personal, cultural and the political. Having received permission  to create a new film for this piece (currently in planning) the author of this article hopes to explore how the cities of Vienna and Berlin might form a visual hinge through which to view the tumultuous exile of the composer from Vienna to Berlin and on to the USA after the rise of National Socialism in 1933. Like Straub and Huillet the author aims to use, and discuss, the potential of film to map the historical onto the present.

 

Paul HARTLEY: The Musical Construction of a Common Trope in New Turkish Cinema

 

This paper explores the musical component of a trope common in the films of the New Turkish Cinema. Examining scenes from four films, it outlines the dialectical struggle between the competing foci of identity enacted through the juxtaposition of urban and rural spaces, Eastern and Western socio-cultural signs, and the reclamation of a lost past. Of central importance is the treatment of how the musical scores tends to construct presentations that are paradoxical and often undo the nostalgia of these moments and how this affects the import of these moments in Turkish social life.

 

Frank F. SCHERER: Ufa Orientalism. The “Orient” in Early German Film: Lubitsch and May

Fantastic images of the exotic pervade many early German films which resort to constructions of “Oriental” scenes. Stereotypical representations of China, India, Babylon, and Egypt  dominate the Kino-screens of Weimar Germany. These films were produced in the UFA studios outside Berlin by directors such as Ernst Lubitsch (Sumurum/ One Arabian Night, 1920; Das Weib des Pharaos/The Love of Pharaoas 1922) and John May (Das Indische Grabmal/ The Indian Tomb, 1921). Yet, where recent observers resist the use of a postcolonial perspective it becomes difficult to assess the cinematographic exoticism of post-WWI Germany.This essay, therefore, offers both a discussion of Edward Said’s ‘Orientalism’and a psychoanalytical thesis on the concealment and supposed healing of post-1918 Germany’s national narcissistic wounds by  emphasizing Eurocentric difference in its filmic representations of the Orient.

 

Agnieszka Ayşen KAIM: Homesickness of the Turkish Soul

Contemporary cinematography reflects the dualism in modern Turkish society. The heart of every inhabitant of Anatolia is dominated by homesickness for his little homeland. This overpowering feeling affects common people migrating in search of work as well as intellectuals for whom Istanbul is a place for their artistic development but not the place of origin. The city and “the rest” have been considered in opposition to each other. The struggle between “the provincial” and “the urban” has even created its own film genre in Turkish cinematography described as “homeland movies”. They paint the portrait of a Turkish middle class intellectual on the horns of a dilemma, the search for a modern identity and a place to belong in a modern world where values are constantly shifting.

 

Qijun HAN: Across Cultural and National Borders: Diasporic Chinese Family in Pushing Hands

 

Being embedded in the interdisciplinary area of media and culture studies, this articlel explores the family melodrama in transnational Chinese cinema drawing upon theoretical discussions with regard to the historical emergence of melodrama in correspondence to “periods of intense social and ideological crisis. While serving as a reflection on the tension between tradition and modernity displayed in the domestic domain, Ang Lee’s Chinese-characterized family melodrama also illustrates the differences between Chinese and Hollywood family melodrama. Linked to the ongoing debate about “melodrama as a cross-cultural form” in the process of analyzing the film text, our perceptions of generic dislocation or displacement, transcultural entanglements and globalization in light of contemporary cultural practices will be furthermore complicated.

 

Akshaya KUMAR: Changing Landscape of Moral Registers and Urban Pathology in ‘Bombay’ Cinema: Decline of Biological Family and Birth of the Individual through Awara (1951), Deewar (1975) and Satya (1998)

 

This article attempts to map out the changing image of biological family as the central axis of collective moral imagination in Bombay Cinema. Tracing the journey of the nation through three iconic films that were massively successful and helped the nation construct its self-projection, Awara (1951),  Deewar (1975), and Satya (1998), mark the birth of an individual who disengages from the epic imagination of Ramayana and Mahabharata and arrives in the dark modern metropolis of post-liberalization India, not as a star figure but in a forever exile confronting, heroically indeed, a pathological condition of his exiled larger collective.

 

Sandra BERCHTEL: Identity, Cultural Representation and Feminism in the Movie Head-On

The movie Head On (2004) from the director Fatih Akin draws the attention of the audience to Turkish women living in Germany. It portrays how some women have to struggle with Turkish traditions and identity problems, living in a modern capitalistic country but being surrounded by Turkish culture. This analysis asks the question whether the movie challenges or supports feminist ideas. Therefore, the characterization, the language, the use of violence, and sexuality will be evaluated to find answers. Feminist principles and goals will help to classify my findings and examine displayed power structures, mixed messages, portrayed stereotypes, and the construction of gender.

 

Petruta TATULESCU: Gender and Identity at Boarding Schools: Outcast Teachers in Maedchen in Uniform (1958) vs Loving Annabelle (2006)

“Loving Annabelle”, a US film released in 2006, tells the story of a boarding school student who falls in love with her teacher. The movie is based on “Maedchen in Uniform”, a German movie released in 1958. This paper aims at analyzing the perception of love, and in particular lesbian love, over the course of a century by dealing with the comparison between the two movies. What has changed and what keeps a similar position in terms of severe rules in the context of the boarding school environment, religion, physical and platonic love? What roles do the family and the teachers play? The teacher becomes an outcast in both movies, yet her character contains a dual and ambivalent role: lover and mother-figure at the same time. Is the microcosm of a boarding school representative for the developments registered in lesbian lives over the past decades and if so, at which extent? Does the movie as a medium reflect the shift in an appropriate manner?

 

Judith MICHELMANN: Re-Organizing Cultural Values: Vers le Sud by Laurent Cantet

 

Cantet's movie “Vers le sud/ Heading South“ (2005) explores cultural stereotypes and values without being moralizing in a common sense. His drama deals with female sex tourism, political and social violence, power and money in such a way that people are tempted to judge the protagonists: Their desire for young black men is called “embarrassing“, they are seen as corrupting and as actors in a new kind of imperialism. In fact the images in the film organize characters in a certain kind of dualism which leads easily to these argumentations. But having a look at the cultural values that produce the disgust, we see that they are all open to question.

 

Derya DEĞER: The Relation between Hollywood and the New Threat Perception of the USA after the End of the Cold War from the Perspective of Postmodernism

 

After the end of Cold War, the USA became the only super power and there was no threat perception from outside, in other words no enemy anymore. In fact, throughout history the USA faced different threats, that is to say, enemies. The terrorist events experienced in America after the end of Cold War brought about that the new enemy was Middle Easterners. Accordingly, the place of cinema in postmodernism is very significant as it becomes the reflection of the zeitgeist and the mindset of the era in which the film is shot. Key Words: Middle East, the USA, Postmodernism, Identity, Terrorists

 

Vlad DIMA: Strangers No More: The Initial Hitchcock Murder

This article analyzes the various levels of violence and graphic detail in the initial Hitchcock murder scenes. Through a detailed close reading of these scenes from Blackmail, Strangers on a Train, and Frenzy, I expose the different and increasing levels of intensity at which sadism functions throughout Hitchcock’s career, and I suggest that the audience is stuck at a one-stage sadistic level as opposed to the typical Freudian model.

 

Melissa R. MEADE: Violence, Oppression, and Double Standards in Three Colombian Films

This article compares three Colombian films that tell distinct stories of violence, personal and political oppression, and double standards. The films Confesión a Laura (Confessing to Laura, Jaime Osorio, 1991), La Primera Noche (The First Night, Luis Alberto Restrepo, 2003) and El Rey (The King, José Antonio Dorado, 2004) each highlight the characters’ struggles in the Colombian socio-political landscape. Each  film’s content and themes do not merely offer representations of national culture, but also provide a way in which to discuss the political and social struggles of Colombia. The directors explore these stories of violence and socio-political struggle through the use of mis-en-scène, cinematography, sound, and editing. Keywords: Colombian film, film analysis

 

Veronika BERNARD : The Wing Beat of the Butterfly. The Causality of Asymmetric Cultural Encounters and Escalation in Babel (2006) and Valley of Wolves – Iraq/ Kurtlar Vadisi – Irak (2006)


The term asymmetric conflict describes a war-like situation in which the opponents involved do not have equal access to decisive logistic resources like technology and weapons. The author of this article states that cultural encounters can also be of asymmetric quality in case the parties involved are not in equal positions of influencing the course of events as is the case, for instance, with provoked or accidental (inter)cultural misunderstandings, hierarchical situations and cases of emergency. She further states that the two movies Babel (2006) and Valley of Wolves – Iraq/ Kurtlar Vadisi – Irak (2006) can be seen as cinematic adaptations of such cases putting the focus on the causality of asymmetric cultural encounters and escalation. The article deals with the major cinematic tools applied in visualizing this causality in the two films.

 

Vedat AKMAN: Istanbul Crossroads Establishing Mutual. Understanding and Inter-Cultural Dialog through Images

Their Slogan is “Young Entrepreneurs Hand by Hand with Young Film Directors”. The goal of the “JCI Istanbul Crossroads” project with Junior Chamber International Istanbul is to celebrate the social, religious and cultural diversities rather than using them as a reason for conflict. This article aims to outline how short films made by young filmmakers around the world reflect and articulate the issues surrounding identities and diversity.

 

 

 

The print edition which will go exclusively to libararies and universities has been published as: 

   

Veronika Bernard, Serhan Oksay (Eds.); Vedat Akman, Murat Akser (Co-Eds.)

IMAGES - FILMS as Spaces of Cultural Encounter. The IMAGES Project 2011 Publication. A CEnT - Cultural Encounters and Transfers and a KiK - Cultures in Contact Publication. Innsbruck 2011

ISBN 978-3-200-02462-5

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Editors’ Note

 

Veronika BERNARD, Serhan OKSAY: The IMAGES Project and the IMAGES Project 2011 Publication IMAGES – Films as Spaces of Cultural Encounters

Veronika BERNARD: Introduction

 

Articles on Cinematic Language and Aesthetics of Convey­ing Cultural Encounters

 

Veronika BERNARD: The Wing Beat of the Butterfly. The Causality of Asymmetric Cultural Encounters and Escalation in Babel (2006) and Valley of Wolves – Iraq/ Kurtlar Vadisi – Irak (2006)

David RYAN: Sedimentations: Some Thoughts on Schoenberg’s Mu­si­­­cal Accompaniment to a Cinematographic Scene

Paul HARTLEY: The ‘Return to Home’: The Musical Construction of a Common Trope in New Turkish Cinema

 

Thematical Articles

 

Frank F. SCHERER: Ufa Orientalism. The ‘Orient’ in Early German Film: Lubitsch and May

Qijun (Cynthia) HAN: Across Cultural and National Borders: Diasporic Chinese Family in Pushing Hands

Akshaya KUMAR: Changing Landscape of Moral Registers and Ur­ban Pathology in ‘Bombay’ Cinema: Decline of Biological Fami­ly and Birth of the Individual through Awara (1951), Deewar (1975) and Satya (1998)

Judith MICHELMANN: Re-Organizing Cultural Values: Vers le Sud by Laurent Cantet

Vlad DIMA: Strangers No More: The Initial Hitchcock Murder

  

Abstracts (Print Publication)

 

Veronika BERNARD : The Wing Beat of the Butterfly. The Causality of Asymmetric Cultural Encounters and Escalation in Babel (2006) and Valley of Wolves – Iraq/ Kurtlar Vadisi – Irak (2006)

 

The term asymmetric conflict describes a war-like situation in which the opponents involved do not have equal access to decisive logistic resources like technology and weapons. The author of this article states that cultural encounters can also be of asymmetric quality in case the parties involved are not in equal positions of influencing the course of events as is the case, for instance, with provoked or accidental (inter)cultural misunderstandings, hierarchical situations and cases of emergency. She further states that the two movies Babel (2006) and Valley of Wolves – Iraq/ Kurtlar Vadisi – Irak (2006) can be seen as cinematic adaptations of such cases putting the focus on the causality of asymmetric cultural encounters and escalation. The article deals with the major cinematic tools applied in visualizing this causality in the two films.
 
Der Begriff asymmetric conflict beschreibt eine kriegsgleiche Situation, in der die Gegner unglei­chen Zugang zu logistischen Ressourcen besitzen. Die Autorin des vorliegenden Artikels behaup­tet, dass kulturelle Kontakte im Falle von bewusstem kulturellem Miss-verstehen, hierarchischen Si­tu­ationen und Notfallsituationen von asymmetrischer Qualität sein können. Sie behauptet außer­dem, dass die Filme Babel (2006) und Tal der Wölfe – Irak (2006) solche Situationen darstellen und sich dabei auf die Kausalität von asymmetrischer Kulturbegegnung und Eskalation konzen­trie­ren. Der Artikel analysiert die filmische Umsetzung dieser Kausalität in den beiden Filmen.  
 
Asimetrik çatışma terimi tarafların teknoloji ve silah gibi belirleyici lojistik kaynaklara eşit erişiminin olmadığı savaş benzeri durumları anlatır. Bu makalenin yazarı duruma karışan tarafların kışkırtılma veya kazara kültürel (arası) yanlış anlaşılma, hiyerarşik durumlar ve acil durumlar gibi olayların akışını etkilemede eşit pozisyonlarda olmadıklarında kültürel kesişmelerin de asimetrik kalitesi olabileceğini belirtmektedir. Ayrıca Babel (2006) ve Valley of Wolves – Iraq/ Kurtlar Vadisi – Irak (2006) filmlerinin bu gibi durumların, asimetrik kültürel kesişimlerin ve gerginlik artışını odak noktası yaparak sinemaya uyarlanması olarak görülebileceğini de vurgulamaktadır. Bu makale, bu iki filmdeki nedenselliği canlandırmada kullanılan ana sinematik araçları ele almaktadır.

 

David RYAN: Sedimentations:  Some Thoughts on Schoenberg’s Musical Accompaniment to a Cinematographic Scene

 

This article examines Arnold Schoenberg’s Begleitmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene of 1930. This, essentially, is a soundtrack in search of a film (no film was actually created with it in mind), and clearly speaks of Schoenberg’s bleak premonitions of the coming decade with its cue titles of ‘threatening fear’ – ‘danger’ – and ‘catastrophe’. The article further explores Schoenberg’s music in relation to the musical/ cinematic practices of his day. This leads to a discussion of Jean-Marie Straub and Danielle Huillet’s utilization of the score from 1973 which uses film as a self-reflexive device to explore the personal, cultural and the political. Having received permission  to create a new film for this piece (currently in planning) the author of this article hopes to explore how the cities of Vienna and Berlin might form a visual hinge through which to view the tumultuous exile of the composer from Vienna to Berlin and on to the USA after the rise of National Socialism in 1933. Like Straub and Huillet the author aims to use, and discuss, the potential of film to map the historical onto the present.
 
Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht Arnold Schönbergs Begleitmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene von 1930, die komponiert, ohne für einen bestimmten Film gedacht zu sein, in ihren Titeln „bedrohliche Angst“ – „Gefahr“ – und „Katastrophe“ Schönbergs Vorwegnahme des kommenden Jahrzehnts ver­­­körpert. Er stellt sie in den musikalischen und filmischen Kontext der Zeit. Dies führt zu einer Dis­­­­kussion von Jean-Marie Straubs and Danielle Huillets das Persönliche, Kuluturelle und Po­li­ti­sche betonenden Herangehensweise des Jahres 1973. Der Autor, dem die Erlaubnis zur Produktion ei­nes Films zur bestehenden Musik erteilt wurde, erkundet, wie die Städte Wien and Berlin eine bild­­liche Annäherung an das Exils des Komponisten bilden können, das ihn von Wien über Berlin in die USA führte.
 
Bu makale, Arnold Schoenberg’in 1930 yapımı Begleitmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene filmini incelemektedir. Bu, esasında, film arayışındaki (aslında bu akılda tutularak herhangi bir film çekilmemiştir) bir film müziğidir; ve ‘tehdit edici korku' – ‘tehlike’ – ‘felaket’ gibi replikleriyle açıkça Schoenberg’in gelecek on yıla dair kasvetli önsezilerinden bahsetmektedir. Bu makale ayrıca Schoenberg’in müziğini onun zamanının müzikal/sinematik uygulamalarıyla bağlantılı olarak incelemektedir. Bu makale Jean-Marie Straub ve Danielle Huillet’ın 1973 yılında kişileri kültürel ve siyasi yönden araştırmak için kullandıkları kişisel yansıma metodu ile ilgili yaptıkları çalışma sonucundaki bulguları ile tartışma yaratmaktadır. Bu parça (şu anda planlanan) için yeni bir film çekme iznini alarak, bu makalenin yazarı 1933’te ulusal sosyalizmin yükselişinin ardından bestecinin Viyana’dan Berlin ve daha sonra Amerika’ya olan çalkantılı sürgününü gözlemleme aracılığıyla Viyana ve Berlin şehirlerinin nasıl bir görsel destek oluşturabildiğini keşfetmeyi amaçlamaktadır.

 

Paul HARTLEY: The Musical Construction of a Common Trope in New Turkish Cinema

 

This paper explores the musical component of a trope common in the films of the New Turkish Cinema. Examining scenes from four films, it outlines the dialectical struggle between the competing foci of identity enacted through the juxtaposition of urban and rural spaces, Eastern and Western socio-cultural signs, and the reclamation of a lost past. Of central importance is the treatment of how the musical scores tends to construct presentations that are paradoxical and often undo the nostalgia of these moments and how this affects the import of these moments in Turkish social life.

 

Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht die musikalische Komponente einer häufigen Trope des türki­schen Films. Indem er Szenen aus vier Filmen betrachtet, isoliert er den dialektischen Kampf wi­der­streitender Identitäten: Stadt vs. Land, Ost vs. West und der Ruf nach einer verlorenen Ver­gan­gen­­heit. Zentral ist dabei der Blick darauf, wie die Musik zum Paradox neigt und dadurch die No­stal­gie dieser Momente aufhebt und wie dies die Bedeutung solcher Momente in der türkischen Ge­sell­schaft beeinflusst.

 

Bu makale, genellikle Yeni Türk Sinemasındaki filmlerde yer alan kinayelerin müzikal birleşimlerini incelemektedir. Dört ayrı filmden sahneler incelenerek, kentsel ve kırsal kesimler, Doğu ve Batı sosyokültürel imgeleri, ve kayıp geçmişin iyileştirilmesinin birbirine yakın olması yoluyla yasallaştırılmış kimliğin mücadele eden odak noktaları arasındaki diyalektik mücadeleyi ana hatlarıyla belirtmektedir. Müzikal skorların nasıl paradoksal sunumlar oluşturmaya eğilimli olduğu ve genellikle bu anların nostaljilerine zarar verdiği, ve bunun Türk sosyal yaşamında yer buluşunu nasıl etkilediğinin iyileştirilmesi önemli bir yere sahiptir.

 

Frank F. SCHERER: Ufa Orientalism. The “Orient” in Early German Film: Lubitsch and May

Fantastic images of the exotic pervade many early German films which resort to constructions of “Oriental” scenes. Stereotypical representations of China, India, Babylon, and Egypt  dominate the Kino-screens of Weimar Germany. These films were produced in the UFA studios outside Berlin by directors such as Ernst Lubitsch (Sumurum/ One Arabian Night, 1920; Das Weib des Pharaos/The Love of Pharaoas 1922) and John May (Das Indische Grabmal/ The Indian Tomb, 1921). Yet, where recent observers resist the use of a postcolonial perspective it becomes difficult to assess the cinematographic exoticism of post-WWI Germany.This essay, therefore, offers both a discussion of Edward Said’s ‘Orientalism’and a psychoanalytical thesis on the concealment and supposed healing of post-1918 Germany’s national narcissistic wounds by  emphasizing Eurocentric difference in its filmic representations of the Orient.

 

Fantastische Bilder des Exotischen durchziehen viele frühe deutsche Filme, die auf die Konstruk­tion von „orientalischen“ Schauplätzen zurückgreifen. Stereotypisierende Darstellungen Chinas, In­di­­­ens, Babylons und Ägyp­tens do­mi­nieren die Kinoleinwände der Weimarer Republik. Diese Filme wur­den in den UFA Studios bei Berlin von Regisseuren wie Ernst Lubitsch (Su­mu­rum, 1920; Das Weib des Pharaos, 1922) und John May (Das Indische Grabmal, 1921) produziert. Der vorliegende Ar­tikel verbindet eine Diskussion von Edward Saids Orientalismus mit einer pschy­choanalytischen The­­se zur Verdrängung und vermuteten Heilung der narzistischen, nationalen Wun­den im Deutsch­land der Ära nach 1918 durch die filmische Betonung einer eurozentristischen Sicht des Orient.

 

Yabancının fanstastik imgeleri “Doğu” sahnelerinin oluşumuna başvuran birçok eski Alman filmine hakimdir.   Çin, Hindistan, Babil, ve Mısır'a ait tipik simgeler Weimar Almanyasının sinema perdelerine yön vermektedir. Bu filmler, Ernst Lubitsch; (Sumurum/ One Arabian Night, 1920; Das Weib des Pharaos/The Love of Pharaoas 1922) ve John May (Das Indische Grabmal/ The Indian Tomb, 1921) gibi yönetmenler tarafından Berlin dışındaki UFA stüdyolarında çekilmiştir. Ancak, son zamanlardaki gözlemciler sömürge sonrası perspektif kullanmaya karşı çıkınca Birinci Dünya Savaşı sonrası Almanya’nın alışılmamış sinemacılığını değerlendirmek zorlaşmaktadır. Bu makale hem Edward Said’in Orientalism’ine bir tartışma hem de Doğu’nun filmsel temsilindeki Avrosantrik farkı vurgulayarak 1918 sonrası Almanya'nın ulusal narsisizm yaralarının sözde tedavisi ve örtülmesi üzerine psikanalitik bir tez sunar.

 

Qijun HAN: Across Cultural and National Borders: Diasporic Chinese Family in Pushing Hands

 

Being embedded in the interdisciplinary area of media and culture studies, this articlel explores the family melodrama in transnational Chinese cinema drawing upon theoretical discussions with regard to the historical emergence of melodrama in correspondence to “periods of intense social and ideological crisis. While serving as a reflection on the tension between tradition and modernity displayed in the domestic domain, Ang Lee’s Chinese-characterized family melodrama also illustrates the differences between Chinese and Hollywood family melodrama. Linked to the ongoing debate about “melodrama as a cross-cultural form” in the process of analyzing the film text, our perceptions of generic dislocation or displacement, transcultural entanglements and globalization in light of contemporary cultural practices will be furthermore complicated.

 

Angesiedelt im interdisziplinären Bereich der Medien- und Kulturwissenschaften, erkundet der vor­lie­gende Artikel das Familien-Melodrama im transnationalen chinesischen Kino unter Einbe­zie­hung theoretischer Diskussionen zur historischen Entstehung des Melodramas. Ang Lees chine­sisch ausgerichtetes Familien-Melodrama bietet die Reflexion der Spannungen zwischen Tradition und Modernität im häuslichen Bereich und illustriert den Unterschied zwischen chinesischem Fa­mi­li­en-Melodrama und Hollywood-Kino. Die Analyse des Films strebt die Problematisierung der Wahr­nehmung von Globalisierung, Vertreibung und transkultureller Verbindung an.

 

Medya ve kültürel çalışmaların disiplinlerarası alanında gömülü olarak, bu makale, yoğun sosyal ve ideolojik kriz dönemlerine karşılık melodramın tarihsel oluşumuna ilişkin uluslaraşırı Çin sinemasındaki aile melodramını incelemektedir. Bir yandan iç alanda gelenek ve modernlik arasında bir yansıma olarak hizmet ederken, Ang Lee’nin Çin karakterli aile melodramı aynı zamanda Çin ve Hollywood aile melodraması arasındaki farklılıkları göstermektedir. Film metinini çözümleme sürecinde “kültürler arası bir form olarak melodram” hakkında sürmekte olan tartışmayla bağlantılı olarak, jenerik kaydırma veya yer değiştirme, kültürler arası karışıklık ve çağdaş kültürel çalışmaların ışığında küreselleşme algılarımız ayrıca anlaşılması zor olacaktır.

 

Akshaya KUMAR: Changing Landscape of Moral Registers and Urban Pathology in ‘Bombay’ Cinema: Decline of Biological Family and Birth of the Individual through Awara (1951), Deewar (1975) and Satya (1998)

 

This article attempts to map out the changing image of biological family as the central axis of collective moral imagination in Bombay Cinema. Tracing the journey of the nation through three iconic films that were massively successful and helped the nation construct its self-projection, Awara (1951),  Deewar (1975), and Satya (1998), mark the birth of an individual who disengages from the epic imagination of Ramayana and Mahabharata and arrives in the dark modern metropolis of post-liberalization India, not as a star figure but in a forever exile confronting, heroically indeed, a pathological condition of his exiled larger collective.

 

Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht das sich verändernde Bild der natürlichen Familie als der zen­tra­len Achse der Moralvorstellung des Bombay Kinos. Indem sie die Entwicklung der Nation durch drei ikonographische Filme verfolgen und sehr erfolgreich dazu beigetragen haben, die Selbstdar­stel­­lung der Nation zu prägen, präsentieren die Filme Awara (1951), Deewar (1975), und Satya (1998) die Geburt eines Individuums, das sich trennt von der Vorstellung des Ramayana und Ma­ha­b­harata und in der dunklen Metropole eines eigenstaatlichen Indien ankommt, aber nicht als eine Star-Figur sondern als ein für immer Exilierter, der heroisch den krabkhaften Zuständen seiner grö­ße­ren Exil-Gemeinschaft begegnet.

 

Bu makale biyolojik aileyi Bombay sinemasındaki kolektif ahlaki imgelemin merkez ekseni olarak planlama girişiminde bulunmaktadır. Ulusun mücadelesini, oldukça başarılı ve ulusun kendi yansıtımını oluşturmasına yardımcı olmuş üç film; Awara (1951),  Deewar (1975) ve Satya (1998) aracılığıyla takip ederek, Ramayana ve Mahabharata’nın epik hayalgücünden kurtulmuş bir bireyin doğumuna damgasını vurur ve karanlıktaki modern şehir olan liberalizasyon sonrası Hindistan’a varır; ve bunu bir star figürü olarak değil, ömür boyu sürgünde, sürgün edilmiş daha büyük kolektif patolojik durumuyla yüzleşerek yapmaktadır.

 

Judith MICHELMANN: Re-Organizing Cultural Values: Vers le Sud by Laurent Cantet

 

Cantet's movie “Vers le sud/ Heading South“ (2005) explores cultural stereotypes and values without being moralizing in a common sense. His drama deals with female sex tourism, political and social violence, power and money in such a way that people are tempted to judge the protagonists: Their desire for young black men is called “embarrassing“, they are seen as corrupting and as actors in a new kind of imperialism. In fact the images in the film organize characters in a certain kind of dualism which leads easily to these argumentations. But having a look at the cultural values that produce the disgust, we see that they are all open to question.

 

Cantets Film Vers le sud (2005) erforscht kulturelle Stereotype und Werte ohne moralisierend im her­­kömmlichen Sinn zu sein. Sein Drama handelt in einer Weise von weiblichen Sex-Touristen, po­­litischer und sozialer Gewalt, Macht und Geld, dass das Publikum versucht ist, die Protagonisten zu beurteilen: Ihr Verlangen nach jungen farbigen Männern wird als „peinlich“ bezeichnet; die Frau­en werden als korrumpierend und als Vetreter eines neuen Imperialismus gesehen. Die Bild­spra­che des Films stellt in ihrem Dualismus darauf ab. Betrachtet man aber die kulutrellen Werte, die den Abscheu auslösen, sieht man, dass sie alle zur Diskussion stehen.

 

Cantet’in filmi “Vers le sud/Heading South” (2005) kültürel stereotipleri ve değerleri genel anlamda ahlak ders vermeden araştırmaktadır. Film, kadın turizmi, siyasi ve sosyal şiddet, güç ve para konularını ele almaktadır; şöyle ki, insanlar baş karakterleri yargılamak için kışkırtılmaktadırlar: Genç siyah erkeklere olan arzular “utanç verici” olarak adlandırılmaktadır, ayartıcı ve yeni bir tür emperyalizmin oyuncuları olarak görülürler. Aslında filmdeki imgeler karakterleri bu yargılamalara kolayca sebebiyet verecek belirli bir ikilik içinde organize etmektedir. Fakat bu nefreti yaratan kültürel değerlere baktığımızda, hepsinin tartışmaya açık olduğunu görmekteyiz.

 

Vlad DIMA: Strangers No More: The Initial Hitchcock Murder

 

This article analyzes the various levels of violence and graphic detail in the initial Hitchcock murder scenes. Through a detailed close reading of these scenes from Blackmail, Strangers on a Train, and Frenzy, I expose the different and increasing levels of intensity at which sadism functions throughout Hitchcock’s career, and I suggest that the audience is stuck at a one-stage sadistic level as opposed to the typical Freudian model.

 

Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die unterschiedlichen Ebenen von Gewalt und gestalterischem De­tail in Hitchcocks ursprünglichen Mordszenen. Durch ein detailliertes close reading von Szenen aus Blackmail, Strangers on a Train, und Frenzy isoliert der Autor die verschiedenen und in ihrer In­ten­si­tät zunehmenden Stufen des Sadismus, die in Hitchcocks Karriere eine Rolle spielten, und er be­hauptet, dass das Publikum auf einer im Gegensatz zum typischen Freudianischen Modell ein­stufigen Skala des Sadismus verharrt.

 

Bu makale şiddetin farklı seviyelerini ve ilk Hitchcock cinayet sahnelerinin grafik detaylarını incelemektedir. Blackmail, Stranger on a Train, ve Frenzy filmlerinden bu sahnelerin detaylı yakın okumaları sonrasında, Hitchcock’un kariyerinde sadizmin farklı ve artan seviyelerdeki işlenme yoğunlukları ortaya çıkmaktadır. İzleyicinin Freud modelinin aksine tek aşamalı sadistik bir seviyede sıkış kaldığını düşünüyorum.

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